The DOE needs to understand the trade-offs there. Some cars have mapping computers that connect to GPS satellites. Budget information provided to the committee by Christy Cooper, DOE, January 13, 2010. The objective is to build a better permanent magnet motor that is designed to provide 30 kW continuous (55 kW peak) power with a top speed of 14,000 revolutions per minute (rpm), a constant power speed range of 5:1, and an efficiency greater than 95 percent at 20 percent torque (El-Rafaie and Johnson, 2009). It did not address in the response the safety implications of relying on compressed-gas storage in the interim period. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Available on the Web at . Although the BES mandate on energy storage is broader and longer term, it works in close coordination with the VT program to advance the energy storage needs for automotive applications. Battery Chargers. Not only is the size different, but the operating regime is different. This field test included data analysis by NREL and SRNL through a collaborative research and development agreement (CRADA). erative pulse power rating, calendar life as measured by accelerated testing, and increased cycle life. At this time it is difficult to predict which type of vehicle (e.g., internal combustion engine vehicle, HEV, PHEV, HFCV, or BEV) will dominate the market in future years. The coordination of activities between the fuel cell technical team members and the DOE appears functional and focused. The highest HFCV range reported to date (estimated to be 431 miles on a single full tank of compressed gas from Toyota) is the result of a field evaluation for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Results to date indicate that most of the 2010 fuel cell performance targets are going to be met. The current status of promising hydrogen storage materials is shown in the composite Figure 3-4. Actions and Evidence Report, April 2. 35 MPa). Security subsystems are not specific to automotive. The newly organized Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE has taken on the coordination of the engineering aspects of material-based hydrogen storage systems. Consider, for example, a vehicle that is driven 12,000 miles per year having an average fuel economy of 25 mpg (0.04 gal/mi). Although it is difficult to assess the specific technologies adopted by the OEMs, and the origins of the technologies, the degree of success is apparent. Recommendation 3-5. In addition, a large number of auto companies have announced their intention to launch HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs using Li-ion batteries in the next few years. Technical tasks have been established that address each of these issues. An H-Prize competition notice was issued for “Breakthrough Advances in Materials for Hydrogen Storage” (DOE, 2009b). This basic vehicle con・“uration was used from the earliest cars through the late 1960s or 1970s, with some notable exceptions. Switching Speed. The energy companies continue to be engaged, and the program of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE), organized under the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), is supplying an important database on the impact of fuel characteristics on engine-emission processes and alternative combustion process facilitation. Available on the Web at . In order to couple an engine running at high speed and a gear system running at low speed, we introduce a clutch which connects the engine and the gear non-rigidly. There are. In powertrain, there’s fuel air or emission control, fuel or air, ignition and misfire, emission control, vehicle speed, idle soeed, computer, and transmission. (Tesla is an expensive sports car that does not meet the target goals of the Partnership.) Public acceptance will demand stringent health, environmental, and safety standards, especially since one of the main reasons for hybrid vehicles is environmental. Improved hydride kinetics by means of carbon aerogel scaffolds has been achieved (HRL Laboratories, LLC; and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). With this change will come new challenges in lean NOx aftertreatment, specifically mitigating the impact of sulfur poisoning and the associated degradation of the system performance that occurs with repeated desulfurization. Chassis is a French term and was initially used to This chapter discusses the vehicle systems technology areas that the Partnership is addressing in its research and development (R&D) programs, which include the following: (1) advanced combustion, emission control, and fuels for ICEs; (2) fuel cells; (3) hydrogen storage on the vehicle; (4) electrochemical energy storage or technologies for storing electricity onboard a vehicle; (5) electrical propulsion systems; and (6) materials for reducing the weight of the vehicle. The motor is a permanent magnet brushless motor with 2 poles, thus requiring switching devices operating at a minimum of 2,750 hertz (Hz). Linking these subsystems together will be a multi-tier, segmented network designed to support real-time control without adding excessive cable weight to the car. Although induction motors are usually used as motors, they can also function as generators. In light of the prior funding of this program as reported in this review period (2007-2009) and the advancements reported to the committee, at the time of this assessment the success of the program could have been put in jeopardy as a result. But the associated cost savings are unlikely to make up the needed $1,000 plus. The attainment of the majority of the 2015 targets is still difficult to predict. It should be noted that the cost is two to four times that of silicon. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): This activity uses a high-temperature polymer. Examples include: total nonparticulates, 100 ppm; H2O, 5 ppm; total hydrocarbons (C1 basis), 2 ppm; O2, 5 ppm; He, N2, Ar combined, 100 ppm; CO2, 1 ppm; CO, 0.2 ppm; total S, 0.004 ppm; formaldehyde (HCHO), 0.01 ppm; formic acid (HCOOH), 0.2 ppm; NH3, 0.1 ppm; total halogenates, 0.05 ppm; maximum particle size, <10 μm; particulate concentration, <1 μg/L H2. Conversion of this power to mechanical power to drive the wheels requires power electronics and one or more. The VT pro-. Although significant progress has been recorded in the Li-ion battery performance, durability, and safety, there has been no improvement in the cost of battery.12 The projected cost at 100,000 units per year for the HEV application remains at higher than $900, almost twice the 2010 target of $500.13 It should be noted that as volume builds up the costs are likely to come down. The DOE should continue to support the development and dissemination of the open-source-code computational fluid dynamics program KIVA. However, there are important differences between consumer and automotive battery efforts and applications. SOURCE: Reprinted from DOE (2009a). The cost does not include the entire cooling system cost, as the cooling system is shared with the vehicle’s traction drive motor. These goals, if attained, are likely to require new transportation energy carriers (fuel[s] and/or electricity) utilized in more efficient power plants in lighter vehicles having reduced power requirements and equivalent utility and safety. This project was completed in September 2009. The fuel cell stack is composed of layers of catalyzed proton-conducting membranes and electrode assemblies (MEAs) that react supplied hydrogen fuel with oxygen from the air. Induction motors. Hydrogen binding energy on adsorbents has been increased (University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Santa Barbara; and Texas A&M). vehicles, they cost less and offer field weakening over a wider speed range. The operational range for LTC has been enhanced through active cylinder valve actuation and intake boosting.
2020 automobile systems and subsystems