Rum is a liquor distilled from sugar. Rum is produced from Genus Saccharum officinarun, the giant grass that’s better known as sugar cane. Light rums tend to have a short fermentation while heavy pot still rums are usually distilled from a wash formed by a long fermentation. Elsewhere, it is rare to find rums made directly from sugar cane juice. The Brazilian rum known as cachaça differs from others because it skips the molasses and instead uses pure sugar cane juice in the distillation process. Many commercially produced flavored rums will use artificial and natural ingredients to add the desired flavor to a white rum base. On rare occasions, a natural infusion of fruits or herbs is used. This, coupled with the higher concentration of alcohol in the final distillate, makes column stills much more economical to operate than pot stills. Thus, you might start with ten casks of rum from a particular batch and ten years later be left with only five casks. This can be commercially cultured yeast or natural ambient yeast found on the leaves of the sugar cane. 5 Best Cachacas for Mixing up a Fantastic Caipirinha. These are the richest rums that receive their flavor from aging in charred oak casks. In the US, rum is defined as a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane, sugar cane syrup, sugar cane molasses or other sugar cane byproducts at less than 95% abv and bottled at at least 40% alcohol by volume. It is typical for rum distillers to talk about three or four-step fermentation in reference to the number of ever larger vessels used between propagation and the fermenters. Casks may be scraped clean to remove any previous charring, and/or re-charred before being filled with rum: the quality of these casks, what they previously held, how many times they are refilled and their treatment dramatically affects the character they impart to the rum stored within them. The cane is left standing and is only singed by the fire due to its high water content. They are the most popular rums to use for cocktails like the Cuba Libre and among the most affordable rums on the market. Appleton Estate. As in Cognac and Scotland it is usual for pot still rums to be double distilled - put through the pot still twice with the distillate collected from the first distillation producing a distillate with an alcohol strength in the low twenties and the second distillation typically being over 70% alc./vol.. A mentioned above the distiller must judge when to make the cuts during distillation so controlling what congeners are retained and discarded. © Copyright odd firm of sin 2020. The two columns are linked, the second further purifying the vapours from the first while at the same time heating the wash that will charge the first (analyzer) colum. So if you're soaking in a pool with an umbrella drink in your hand, raise a glass to rum. Rum is one of the oldest distilled spirits and it has one of the most colorful histories of any alcoholic beverage. Each of these will give the individual rum various and distinct characteristics. After six years or so it was common to plant another crop to reinvigorate the soil but modern fertilisers are now often used to stretch a few more years of cane growth. Light, gold, dark, spiced, and flavored rums are among the most popular. Don’t splurge on an expensive, mature bottle; it doesn’t taste that much better, and its oakiness will sometimes quarrel with the spices. You could even think of them as the desserts of the rum world. All rights reserved. This is a popular rum for creating flamed drinks because the high alcohol content makes it easy to burn. Dunder is the term given to lees which have been left in open dunder pits to concentrate the ester content and the acetic/butyric acids. That rum wash currently contains some undesirable contents that you’ll need to separate out and dispose of. All editorial and photography on is copyright protected, Please confirm you are over 21 years old and enter your email, Reviews, Ratings & Our Rules of Engagement. The still is charged with the wash and then heat is applied to bring to the boil. Gold rums are often aged in oak casks, which also contribute to their dark, smooth characteristics. Flavoring rum by adding spices and aromatics during distillation became popular in the latter part of the 20th century. The use of sugar cane distinguishes rum from all other liquors. Malibu is a coconut flavored liqueur, made with Caribbean rum, and possessing an alcohol content by volume of 21.0 % (42 proof).As of 2017 the Malibu brand is owned by Pernod Ricard, who calls it a "flavored rum", where this designation is allowed by local laws. The sweet taste of rum makes it a versatile mixer and it is essential for any well-stocked bar. These are undesirable compounds, partly due to being tainted as these first vapours effectively clean the still from the previous distillation. Charcoal filtration can also remove the colour imparted by age so a three year old rum may be crystal clear when bottled. They've purchased 50 tonnes of the Hunter Valleys smoke-tainted grapes and, Not to be confused with their more bitter and alcoholic siblings, Italian red bitter liqueurs, these similarly coloured aperitivo liqueurs are altogether. The pineapple infusion is sure… The hot steam rises through the still with each floor or plate acting to distil the wash with heavier compounds unable to rise to the next floor so falling while lighter compounds vaporise and ascend the still. Light rums tend to originate from countries originally colonised by the Spanish, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela. Additives used to boost a rum's flavour include prune wine, chaptalized fruit juice, boisse, sugar, spice and flavourings. The cut cane is promptly transported to the mill where it is crushed in a machine. What's left is the thick black liquid by-product known as molasses. The variety has grown to rival the number of flavored vodka options available. For rum production ideally molasses should have at least 52% sugar content but sadly for the distillers there is no specification for molasses as this is a waste product of sugar processing. This process usually includes the fermentation of the juices of the sugarcane plant, as well as of molasses and other by-products of sugar production. Sure, alcoholism is a rising problem and it had led to many deaths, broken families and illnesses. You must log in to your account to make a comment. This mixture is boiled and then cooled to encourage the sugar crystals to enlarge. Thus Trinidadian rums taste very different to Jamaican rums or Martinique rums. Like most rums, it can be mixed into almost any cocktail you can think of. The higher alcohol content makes these a popular choice for lighting drinks on fire. These rums are generally aged in stainless steel tanks for up to a year and filtered before bottling. Colour in rum is the result of ageing in oak casks (and also the possible addition of caramel colour). There are many fascinating brands available to explore and they run the gamut of price and quality. Fermentation can be a quick as 24 hours or as long as a fortnight. Rum definition, an alcoholic liquor or spirit distilled from molasses or some other fermented sugar-cane product. In general, heavily-bodied rums are those with more congeners and they tend to be made in pot (alembic) stills. The sugar may be either pure cane sugar, a syrup, or molasses. While rum generally does not have tight regulations on its production, rhum agricole is an exception. Rum is made from sugarcane, a crop that Christopher Columbus introduced to the Americas in the 1400s. White rum: Also known as light rum, white rum is the most common type of rum used in a classic Rum and Coke. Look for bottles like Cruzan Black Strap and Captain Morgan Black Spiced Rum. Cachaça is one of the sweetest rums available, though many people—particularly in Brazil—don't like to categorize it as a rum. These are tied in elaborate shapes to represent a watchman, which the cutters believe will ward off the 'duppies' or mischievous spirits. Choosing a quality light or gold rum to stock in your bar is a good place to begin. Many of these rums make a smooth sipper and can be used in place of light rum in some darker cocktails. ('Fancy molasses' is a term for 'inverted sugar' syrup where sucrose has been converted to glucose and fructose with acid or enzymes.) Rum 101. The process of extracting sugar from cane juice produces a by-product called molasses and this is what most rum is made from. White rum can simply be a sugar cane distillate watered down and bottled. Many rums are then aged in wood casks. Many rum distillers will also use old bourbon barrels for aging because they cannot be reused in that whiskey's production. There are also origin-specific styles like cachaça and rhum agricole available. Once a field of cane is ready to be harvested, that particular field is sometimes burnt to remove the leaves (and scorpions and such like). The resulting rum is equally as dark, rich, and thick. In rum making one of the common additions to pot stills are retorts. Plantation Pot stills are used in many of the traditional rums, though most now use continuous column stills. First produced in the 1600s in the Caribbean, rum can be made from sugar cane juice or from molasses, a rich, dark by-product of sugar production that provides an earthy flavour note. The level of these (esters, aldyhydes and lower alcohols) is dependent on the length of the fermentation and the purity to which it was distilled. It is at this blending stage where some of rums controversies occur. As for age statements, in many cases they are just that, statement and not fact. The way the distiller can influence the type of distillate produced varies according to which of these two types of still are used. Also, never use overproof liquors of any kind in cooking or near an open flame because they are highly flammable. The skimmings were obtained from the boiling of the sugar cane and were mixed with molasses and "dunder" (leftover sediment in the still). They vary greatly in age, with the older rums costing more than younger bottlings. Today, rum is produced throughout the world. Some of these heavier congeners are oily and are referred to as fusel oils. The odour, texture and taste of light rums are more subtle and refined than those of heavy rums, which have a heavy, syrupy flavour to match their dark colour. Similar in color and body to gold rum, aged rums should be distinguished from their counterparts because these do not include any additives. Sugar cane contains about 75% water, 10-16% sugar and 10-16% fibre. It is then spun in a centrifuge to separate the crystals from the liquid. This syrup is clarified and mixed with sugar crystals, which provide a core for the dissolved sugar in the syrup to crystallise on. Rum is termed 'light' or 'heavy' depending the level of flavour components or 'congeners' - products of fermentation that are not ethyl alcohol. Column stills are also known as 'continuous stills' because, as their name suggests, they can be run continuously without the need to stop and start between batches as in pot stills. This process of distilling the fermented rum wash will make for a purer and more concentrated spirit. By law, cachaça must be produced in Brazil. Once the cane is burnt it must be quickly harvested and then milled within 24 hours to prevent deterioration of its sugars and bacterial infection. The vast majority of rum you see on store shelves, and in the wells of bars, is made from the fermentation and distillation of molasses—the same molasses used in … They are often quite rich and surprisingly smooth. The molasses-cane juice mixture is then fermented and distilled. A subcategory of dark rum is those called blackstrap. Others portray the average age of the rums in the blend and some are simply meaningless. That is why you may see a dark Caribbean rum aged for just three to five years while a North American rum of similar color and oaky flavor may be aged for around 10 years. As the sugar processing industry becomes more efficient so the amount of rum that can be produced per ton of molasses is failing. There are a number of styles of rum produced. That man's name was Facundo Bacardi Masso and the drink was known as "aguardiente,"" the Spanish word for firewater. Get our free book when you sign up for our newsletter. It's worth remembering that distillation can only separate and remove flavours while fermentation generates flavour in the first place. Light Rum. Some distillers use chilled heads on their retorts which condense the vapours as they rise up causing them to fall back into the chamber. Rum produced from a pot still or single distillation column is usually described as heavy. This is where the distillation step of making your own rum comes in. The sugar found on your supermarket shelf, whether white or brown was produced from sugar cane juice and regardless of its end colour was originally brown - white sugar is the result of a further industrial process. Rum is made from sugar cane juice or its by-product called molasses. The type of yeast used varies tremendously from country to country and distiller to distiller. It's also common to find them mixed along with a light rum in many tiki cocktails such as the popular hurricane. This taste profile is a result of either the production of congeners (organic compounds produced during production) or the addition of caramel. Cooling jackets can be used to increase reflux and there is also a move to use vacuums in column stills which reduce the boiling points and so the temperature the still runs at. Modern column still technology allows light and extra-light rums to be produced efficiently and cheaply. It is common for stills with retorts to have tanks under each retort where the low wines and the high wines are sent in preparation for charging the retorts above for the following distillation. The third batch of sugar produced by this process is known as Low-grade sugar and this is used to mix with the next batch of syrup to start the process again. Many distillers, such as Novo Fogo, even play with different types of woods that impart unique flavor profiles to the spirit. At the sugar mill, the cane is chopped and crushed to extract the juice which is boiled to reduce the water content and leave a syrup known as 'wet sugar', comprising approximately 30% sugar. The crushing extracts the sugar cane juice from the fibrous pulp. Making rum from scratch using molasses and sugar. Few spirits can make a beach cocktail like rum can. By the mid-1700s, rum was being made throughout the Caribbean and South America. Diplomatico Reserva. If you are already drunk, don't try to play with fire in your drinks. In addition, yeast also initiates chemical reactions in the wash to create compounds such as aldehydes, esters and acids which are collectively known as congeners. Try some of these: As with all rum, quality and price vary greatly from one brand to another. No matter the base, the underlying flavor profile of rum is a sweet, toasted sugar. Losses in volume to due evaporation are also more exaggerated in hotter climates (around 6% per year as opposed to 3% in Scotland) and high humidity can mean an almost equal loss between alcohol and water, meaning that although the volume is lost the strength remains fairly constant. The fact that ageing in oak barrels improves the raw rum was discovered when ships carried rum on the long passage to Europe, it arrived darker in colour and with an improved flavour. The type of wood used is often the determining factor in the color of rum produced in the end. Distillation works on the principle that alcohol boils at a lower temperature (78.3°C /165°F) than water (100°C /212°F). These are made from the darkest molasses produced during the third boil while refining sugar. By far the majority of rums are produced from molasses - known as 'rhum traditional', but also sometimes rather unkindly described by producers of rhum agricole as 'rhum industriel' (industrial rum). The majority of rum is bottled at 40 percent alcohol by volume (80 proof). The rums produced in tropical climates will generally be aged for a shorter period of time than those in cooler climates. If you said yes, chances are you're a fan of rum, which is the reason why piña coladas make you feel intoxicated. It is distilled from fresh-pressed sugar cane juice using a Creole continuous column still. Pot stills are the simplest and the original type of still. As touched upon earlier, particularly when discussing the difference between light and heavy rums, there are basically two types of still used in rum production: pot (alembic) stills and column (Coffey) stills. This is called reflux and it can also be achieved by the way the head on the pot still is shaped. Taken in moderation, alcohol can be helpful and rum is its very tasty kind. Conversely, some aged rums are charcoal filtered to remove any colour and are bottled completely clear. So with rum what you see is not necessarily what you get. Some stills are very simple, while others have devices which allow the distiller more control. Many rum producing nations have precious few rules governing age statements and additives, and I am not being controversial by saying that some producers take advantage of the lack of regulations or governing bodies. My most recent batch was made with a golden rum (80-proof) from St. Vincent. The volatile 'high wines' or 'heads' will be given off first and set aside. Photo by Alex Lau. Whatever the origins of the cask, ageing spirits in the humid/tropical climatic conditions typical of the Caribbean and South America will have a very different affect to that of somewhere like Scotland. It is the most common … It is important to note that climate plays a significant role in how long any distilled spirit is aged for and rum is no exception. The crushed pulp waste is burned to generate power to crush the cane and sometimes to heat a distillation column. The taller the stills, the more plates they contain and so the purer the alcohol (lighter rum) produced. The hot vapour causes the liquid in the 'low wine retort' to boil and so concentrate the strength of the vapour which then moves on the second retort. It is common for caramel to be added to aged rums to 'correct' the colour, and lets be honest, often to darken the colour so potentially giving the rum an older appearance. The purity of the juice imparts a special flavor to this style of rum. It includes both the light-bodied rums, typified by those of Cuba and Puerto Rico, and the heavier and fuller-flavoured rums of Jamaica.. Rums originated in the West Indies and are first mentioned in records from Barbados in about 1650. Blending is the final process available to the distiller to alter a rum's character. The sugar and molasses produced by the first process are termed A-grade and the second B-grade. The majority of "dark" rums fall into this category as well. In the Caribbean the cane is usually cut once a year, while in South American sub-tropical climates it is possible to crop twice a year. A good cutter will average three tons of cane per day but this is a tiny fraction if what a machine can cut and (gradient allowing) mechanised harvesting is now used. The pH of the molasses will also affect fermentation and ideally will be in a range between 4.4 to 4.6 and this may be adjusted but the addition of the acidic residue (lees) left in the still after an earlier distillation. For example the first retort may contain low wines mixed with fermented wash, dunder and even some high wines. The Singularity of Cuban Rum. Besides adding a rich, sweet flavor to cocktails, dark rums are the preferred sipper of the rum family, especially fine rums like Angostura 1824. This caramelises natural sugars on the wood's surface increasing the vanillins. Another rum made directly from sugar cane juice, cachaça gained some popularity in the U.S. following the 2016 Olympics. Rum is one of the most popular liquors and it is used to create many cocktails, including the daiquiri and mojito. This method of rum production is common on the French islands, particularly Martinique where it is called 'rhum agricole'. Some newer rums are a blend of agricole and traditional, Rum can also be made from cane syrup, made by boiling cane juice to remove some of its water content. Next follows the desirable part of the run, 'the cut', as the alcohol level of the distillate collected starts to fall, and the 'low wines' or 'tails' arrive and are set aside. A longer, slower fermentation will result in a heavier, more acidic wash due to other contaminating bacteria also given time to reproduce during the process. The name is an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée, meaning that calvados, Fruit cups, quintessentially English summertime thirst-quenching drinks, were invented by the Victorians and were originally a mixture of fruit, liqueurs, Archie Rose, a Sydney-based distilling company, have just taken a big gamble. Multiple-column stills can produce both heavy and light rums depending on where the spirit is removed from the still. Many of the early Caribbean rums were produced with molasses and "skimmings" from the production of sugar. Heavy rums traditionally come from former French and English colonies, including Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Barbados, Guyana and the Virgin Islands. As in the first retort, the vapour causes the liquid to boil and the alcohol strength of the vapour is boosted a second time. Like all distillates, regardless of whether they are distilled in pot or column stills, all rums are clear when they condense after distillation. This can add some underlying whiskey-like flavors to the rum, something you'll also find in many tequilas. Traditionally, cane is harvested by cutters wielding machetes, who cut the cane close to the ground as this part of the stem has the highest concentration of sugars, before lopping off the leafy tops. There are many different varieties of sugar cane and the variety and the region where it’s grown significantly affect the profile of the rum produced from it. Thanks to Don Facundo Bacardi's lead it is common to use charcoal filtration during the production of light rums. Charcoal filtration may be used before and after ageing. But anything is excess is bad. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The origins of a rum and its 'terroir', will affect its style, not only due to local production method traditions, but also the micro-climate, origin of the sugar cane juice / molasses and location and style of ageing warehouses. Rum distinguishes itself from other spirits by the plant from which it is made. The most famous cachaça cocktail is the caipirinha, Brazil's national drink. The old rhyme goes, 'One of sour, two of sweet, three … In the case of the best producers and regulated markets, these age statements (rightly) represent the age of the youngest rum in the blend. The compounds are flavoursome and depending on the type of rum to be produced, their formation will be encouraged or discouraged by the type of yeast used and the temperature of the fermentation. It's always a good idea to read the labels so you know what you're buying, especially when it comes to the potential of additives. This potent rum is 75 to 75 1/2 percent alcohol by volume (150 to 151 proof) and can be as dangerous to drink as Everclear if it is not diluted in some way. A decent white rum is fine, but I prefer a moderately aged, slightly dry spirit, as this adds some intrigue to the end product. Perforated copper trays or 'plates' sit horizontally in each, like the floors in an skyscraper. Rum is a hard alcohol made from fermented sugar. Ethanol alcohol and other desirable compounds are less volatile (slightly heavier) and so follow the low wines. Rum drinks range from hot to cold, easy to complicated. The liquids placed in the retorts will have a dramatic affect on the finished distillate. Almost any aged rum can be mixed into drinks and many can stand on their own and enjoyed straight. This process gives light rums their clean, light flavor. Rum is an alcoholic spirit made from sugar cane. Whether a cask is a 'first re-fill', meaning the cask was previously used to age another spirit and this is its first time it has been used to age rum. The lightest of these, the 'low wines' (those with a low boiling point) will be given off first and many of these most volatile compounds are harmful. Aged rums will obtain their golden color from the barrels that they are aged in. The resulting 'wash' can then be distilled to make rum. The heaviest compounds, the 'high wines' (those with a high boiling point) come off the still last. Reflux increases copper contact and effectively raises the boiling point so producing a lighter distillate. Or it is a second or third re-fill will make a huge difference to the effect the cask has on the maturing spirit. See more. Calvados is a French brandy made from apples (though it can also contain pears). I wanted to make some rum so that I could make my own Captain Morgans Spiced Rum you will need 1 x 25L fermentation vessel a long spoon, you can get these from homebrew shops yeast nutrient, you can substitute tomato puree for this if you have trouble getting hold of yeast nutrient. Light-bodied rum is sometimes referred to as white or silver rum. The level of impurities in light rum is less than a third of those found in heavy rums. Thus a good sugar factory will produce bad molasses as it will have efficiently extracted most of the sugar. But rum isn't exclusive to just one cocktail, as it's the alcohol of choice for everything from mojitos to mai tais to hurricanes.
2020 what is rum made from